Saturday, March 14, 2020

Enlightenment Thematic Essay essays

Absolutism/Enlightenment Thematic Essay essays The Enlightenment was a time of greatness and advances in European History, but it can also be argued as a time of turmoil and destruction. During this time in European history, many great philosophers, or thinkers, thought of new ideas and methods of governing and social interactions to increase the prosperity of people. These ideas changes the way people felt about divine right authority by showing that individuals are born with inalienable rights. Arbitrary punishment was a problem during the reign of monarchs. Torture and suppression of ideas were a constant threat for both the philosophers and the citizens. A philosopher named Beccaria believed that reason could be used in determines the type and severity of punishment of a person. This was later used in the US Bill of Rights. Because of Beccarias idea, torture was reduced and abolished in Europe and North America. Another proposed reform was freedom of thought and expression which was one of the freedoms philosophers by the name of Voltaire fought for. Since his voice was constantly being suppressed by the monarchs, he proposed freedom of thought and expression, which later proved to play a vital part in the US Bill of Rights and the French Declarations of the Rights of Man and Citizen. In the US Bill of Rights, freedom of speech was influenced a great deal by this one idea by Voltaire. Consequences of the ideas of these two philosophers ultimately caused the development of the English parliament. A very big problem experienced thought Europe was a lack of equality for women. A philosopher by the name of Mary Wollstonecraft proposed a reform for womens equality. These ideas came from the standards that women possessed during the times; women should be wives and mothers, no more and no less. Because of this way of thinking, womens education and rights was given a low priority. Many people, both men and women attempted to reform this. This caused the crea...

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Becoming Global Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Becoming Global - Coursework Example If the party promises to accept the agreement, the other party must promise to give something in return (Burnett, 2004). A valid offer has a clear communication and is specific and definite in its terms. Considering the above three proposals, the first proposal gives a valid offer. The contractor clearly communicates the terms of her offer. She also gives the time lapse of the offer. The other three offers only communicate the quantity of the product they would produce and the cost of purchasing them. They do not give definite terms of the offer (Moens & Gillies, 2000). Gloria wants to engage in a global business because she wants to expand her business. Her concern is that if she engages in a business with the large retailer supplier, she will have to cut down her costs. However, she should consider other issues. Such issues are the laws of that country, the taxes that she would pay and language issues. She should also consider employing trusted employees for her business to succeed ( Hayward, 2012). Gloria can protect herself and her family from persona liability by obtaining an insurance cover for her business. She can also have some by-laws that would allow another person from the company to act on her behalf (Annabel,

Monday, February 10, 2020

Poverty Issue In Canada Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Poverty Issue In Canada - Essay Example However, the issue of poverty in Canada is very much alive and as the paper analyzes, there are several dimensions to the incidence of poverty in Canada. To quote the preeminent expert on Canadian poverty, Christopher Sarlo, â€Å"Poverty is not a MAJOR problem in Canada. This is not to say that there is no poverty, but, to underscore the fact that the issue is multi-dimensional, meaning that there is no one reason for poverty in Canada nor there is widespread poverty like in the developing world† (Sarlo, 1996). The point here is that like in other countries in the developed world, poverty in Canada affects some sections more than the others and hence it remains â€Å"hidden† from public view. Historically, the issue of Poverty in Canada was very much like that of the countries under British occupation and there were landed gentry and huge numbers of people who were struggling to make ends meet. The country was divided into concentrations of people who were living in conditions that could be described as appalling whereas there were huge swathes of land owned by a few who could be described as living pleasantly and were well-off. The history of poverty in Canada goes back to the 18th century where the British-North American lands were experiencing the industrial revolution that saw a high proportion of people being lifted out of poverty whereas the others continued to suffer under deprived conditions. In the 20th century, the onset of the Great Depression in the 1930’s witnessed the hitherto well-off slipping into lower income categories because of the losses suffered by them on account of the economic crisis. In the same way that the current economic crisis has pushed many middle class families into lower income brackets, the Great Depression affected Canada by reducing the middle class to a state of penury. After that the history of poverty has matched the cyclical processes of growth and

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Athenian audience Essay Example for Free

Athenian audience Essay Athenian audience with the references made to Athenian hypocrisy and the challenges and questions he raised on some of the moral issues of the time and the questions that he asked in his plays were sometimes ill received such as the role of women etc. Despite this, Euripides did win the tragedy prize with Hippolytus and is revered as a great playwright in present day drama. From some of the female characters that Euripides develops in his plays, one could assume that Euripides was a misogynist. However, it is wrong to say that all of his female characters are wicked and evil; Euripides has created some wonderful and interesting female characters as well as the wicked ones. Perhaps The Assembly Women actually had wrong motive for their revolt! In Alcestis, the title character, the wife of Admetus (the King of Pherae) sacrifices herself for her husbands life. A most noble act and Euripides portrays her character, as the model of what a Greek wife should be: completely and utterly devoted to their husband to the extent of dieing for the man that supports them. The Greek audience and modern alike will like Alcestis, as she is a sweet natured and noble woman. She most certainly would have won the hearts of the Greek audience. As she is such a noble character and the measure of her kindness toward her husband is so great, Euripides had to bring her back. So the heroic Heracles wends his way to Hades kingdom and brings her back. In Electra, again the title role, at the beginning of the play, comes across as a very sorrowful young woman. She has cut her hair out of mourning for her murdered father, Agamemnon. He was murdered by her mother, Clytemnestra, as he had to sacrifice their daughter and then brought home a concubine (Cassandra). When Agamemnon did get home, Clytemnestra had fallen in love with Aegisthus. Therefore, so far in the play, Electra comes across as a woman very much devoted to her father and hates her mother for murdering him. So far so justified. However, when she happens to meet her brother, Orestes, she convinces him to kill their mother. At this point she comes across as a very wicked conniving young lady. It seems as though she had been waiting for Orestes return to make him do this. When Orestes has doubts over killing Clytemnestra, she bullies him into doing it. She knew the result she wanted to get and she got it. Clytemnestra, if you havent read or seen Aeschylus Agamemnon, comes across as a less conniving woman than her daughter. She comes across as a very powerful and domineering woman. She arrives in the play in a chariot and commands the slaves to help her down. She is very aware of her class and position and will not back down from her decision to murder Agamemnon and regards it as the right thing to do. In this sense we must respect her for sticking by her decision and understand that Agamemnon did kill their daughter and come back with a concubine. In a very slight way, she is justified. Therefore, Euripides has created in Electra a very complicated character. We as the audience or readers assume that she had been planning her revenge on her mother for some time and was just waiting for Orestes return to enact it. Before this point however, we can sympathise with her loss of a father and the pain that she must be going thorough to have the knowledge that it was her mother who murdered him. Clytemnestra, from this play, comes across a woman who sticks by her decision and who in speech ha the capacity to justify and handle herself well. Euripides has created two complicated female characters and in his portrayal of them has shown no signs of his rumoured misogyny. Euripides creates one of the greatest roles for any actress to play in Hecabe. The title role is not the aforementioned feet of extraordinary characterisation. However, Hecabe as a character is very interesting. The audience comes away not knowing what to think of her. She begins the play as a woman who has endured such a lot of pain as the former Queen of the now sacked citadel of Troy. She has reached the limit of endurance and collapses in sorrow. She has lost her entire family to a war over one woman, the infamous Helen. At the end of the play, however, she literally snaps from a grief stricken widow to a raving savage. She has Polymestor blinded and enjoys the gruesome description of the event and the sounds. According to legend, Hecabe turns into a dog due to her extreme torment that results into madness. This is what Polymestor tells her at the end of the play when his blind by her decision. The character this section opened with by praising is Polyxena. She is Hecabes daughter and Euripides develops her character beautifully. Odysseus informs Hecabe that her daughter must be sacrificed to the deceased Achilles. Without shedding a tear, Polyxena, heroically goes with Odysseus to accept her fate. As she is taken to the tomb of Peleus (Achilles father), Greek soldiers hold her and Achilles son gets ready with his sword to kill or to sacrifice her. She asks not to be held and the soldiers are taken away. She then tears her clothes off to the wait and bravely speaks and awaits the sword to be thrust into her chest. Euripides in this play has created two memorable female characters. The brave and heroic Polyxena and the complicated Hecabe. Again, no sign of any misogyny on Euripides part here, in fact the opposite in Polyxenas case. Creating a heroic woman is no mean feet in Ancient Greece and her character must have been received well as she is incredibly strong of character and of heart. Another great female character in Euripidean literature is Heracles wife Megara in the play Heracles. The play tells of how Hera (Queen of the gods, married to Zeus, whos father to Heracles) turned Heracles mad and in his madness killed his three sons and his wife Megara. This then lead him to go to the Delphic Oracle that told him to be a slave to Eurytheus thus leading to his infamous twelve labours. Anyhow, Megara, at the beginning of the play, thinks that she is a widow and is a vulnerable woman who has to be strong for her three young sons. However, Heracles actually is not dead and comes home to them in Thebes. He is then turned mad by Hera and shoots two of his sons with arrows in his madness. Megara takes the last son and locks herself in room but Heracles breaks in and shoots them both with one arrow.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Optimal Size Of A Firm :: essays research papers

Optimal Size Of A Firm   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The optimum size of a firm is a very subjective idea. The ways in which size can help or hinder a firm vary from which angle you a looking at the situation from. Size can have its benefits and its drawbacks, and each firm will have its own benefits and drawbacks that come from either increasing in size, or remaining small, and these will depend on the market in which the firm is in, the current economy, and in some cases the preferences of the manager(s).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  For example a small firm may be small for many reasons. It may be small because it has just started out in business, and still has relatively little funds, so although the owner/manager may have aspirations of the business growing, at the present time, his main concern would be keeping the business afloat. Another small business may stay small due to the preference of the manager/owner, for example a corner newsagent's shop may remain a small retail business as the owner is making a profit from the business that he finds acceptable, and does not want the hassle of either expanding his current business, setting up new shops, or taking over another business.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The size of a business does however depend a great deal on the market which it is in. For example a business which makes specialist goods, or caters to only a very small number of people, will not be able to grow beyond the capacity of that market. This means that the optimum size for a business in a market with little growth and only a small number of prospective customers would be large enough to serve as many customers as it had market share for, but small enough to ensure that they don't over produce.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  If there is a fairly large market for the product/service that a company is providing, then there is likely to be a large amount of competition in the market. This means that it would be fairly hard for the company to grow in that market unless they did one of three things. Firstly they could come up with a better and cheaper product then the rest of their competitors, if their customers noticed this then the customers would choose their product over their competitors, leading to growth in the company (although internal growth can be one of the slowest, and sometimes one of the most costly methods of growth). Secondly the company could invest money into giving themselves a recognisable brand name, although this can be a costly procedure, and can take a great deal

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Fall in Elderly

1 The Role of Tai Chi Exercise in Promoting Health Benefits for Older Persons Fuzhong Li, Ph. D. , Oregon Research Institute Tai Chi, or Taijiquan to be exact, originated in China about 300 hundreds years ago (China Sports, 1980) and began as a form of martial arts like boxing. It has continued to evolve from being originally used as a combative and self-defense form to a health-enhancing exercise, practiced by individuals of all ages to maintain health and prevent disease. As an alternative exercise, Tai Chi has drawn increasing research interest, with accumulating evidence showing the therapeutic value of Tai Chi to overall health and well-being. The goal of this paper is to summarize current research findings with a particular focus on geriatric populations, discuss findings with respect to their practical implications, and highlight future research directions. Overview of Research Findings A number of excellent review articles exist showing evidence that Tai Chi generates various health benefits for individuals of varying age groups and patient populations (Fasko & Grueninger, 2001; Lan, Lai, & Chen, 2002; Li, Hong, & Chan, 2001; Verhagen, Immink, va der Meulen et al. , 2004; Wang, Collet, & Lau, 2004; Wayne, Krebs, Wolf, et al. , 2004; Wu, 2002). Without overdue redundancy, the following provides a summary review of research studies that involve randomized controlled trials (RCTs) although results from non-RCTs are reported in the absence of RCTs. With aging processes, declines in physical and mental status in older adults often result in balance control impairments, functional limitations in locomotor activities, disability in particular activities, and decreased quality of life. Therefore, this review also focuses on health outcomes that have been shown to be clinically most relevant to this population. These include balance and falls, musculoskeletal conditions, sleep quality, cardiovascular and respiratory function, and psychosocial wellbeing. Balance Control, Falls, and Fear of Falling Falls are significant public health problem among older adults (Murphy, 2000; Stevens, 2005), making it a major threat to the independence and quality of life of older adults, as well as imposing significant burden to individuals, society, and national health systems (National Action Plan, 2005). As a stand-alone exercise intervention, Tai Chi has been shown to reduce the risk for falls. Wolf and his colleagues (1996) conducted the very first randomized controlled trial comparing the efficacy of two methods of exercise on falls. Community living healthy adults were randomized to one of three groups: Tai Chi training; computerized balance training; and an attention control. Results of this 15-week trial showed that Tai Chi participants experienced significant reductions (by about 47%) in falls compared to the exercise control participants. In a follow-up 48-week RCT, Wolf et al (2003) evaluated Tai Chi with older adults who were less robust (that is, transitioning to frailty). No significant between-experimental group reductions in falls were observed. However, by analyzing fall data from month four through month twelve, the study showed a significantly reduced risk of falls in the Tai chi group compared with the exercise control group. In an independent study, Li et al. (2005) confirmed the general findings of those reported by Wolf and his colleagues. These researchers reported that, at the end of a 6-month Tai Chi intervention, significantly fewer falls (38 versus 73), lower proportions of fallers (28% versus 46%), and injurious falls (7% versus 18%) were observed in the Tai Chi condition, compared to a low-impact stretching control condition. Overall, the risk of multiple falls in the Tai Chi group was 55% lower than that of the stretching controls. In addition, compared to stretching control participants, Tai Chi participants showed significant improvements in measures of functional balance, physical performance, and reduced fear of falling. Of equal importance, intervention gains in these measures were maintained at a 6-month postintervention follow-up in the Tai Chi group (Li et al. 2004). Musculoskeletal Conditions Evidence to date indicates that Tai Chi training preserves or even increases lower-extremity muscle strength. Wolfson et al. (1996) showed that 6 months of Tai Chi training (following their primary interventions) did not improve lower-extremity muscle strength, compared to an exercise control group. However, their data did indicate that Tai Chi training preserved lowerextremity strength gains developed by the intervention. In a 20-week pilot study, Christou et al. 2003) showed that, compared to those in the control condition, Tai Chi participants significantly improved knee extensor strength and force control among older adults. Tai Chi also appears to be safe and beneficial for patients with rheumatoid arthritis. In a randomized trial among older women with osteoarthritis, Song et al (2003) showed a 12-week Tai Chi program resulted in significant improvements in pain and stiffness in joint s, balance, and abdominal strength, and fewer reported perceived difficulties in physical functioning, compared to those of control subjects. Another randomized trial, Hartman et al (2000) showed that a 12week program significantly improved osteoarthritis symptoms such as fatigue, arthritis selfefficacy, feelings of tension, and satisfaction with general health status. More recent evidence points to the potential of Tai Chi as a weight-bearing exercise for retarding bone loss in older women. In a 12-month randomized trial, Chan et al (2004) tested the hypothesis that Tai Chi may retard bone loss in early postmenopausal women. At the end of the trial, bone mineral density (BMD) measurements revealed a general bone loss in both Tai Chi and control subjects at all measured skeletal sites, but with a slower rate in the Tai Chi group. Although the BMD findings were equivocal, the findings lend some support for the potential of Tai Chi to retard bone loss. Cardiovascular and Respiratory Function Although numerous studies have evaluated the effects of Tai Chi on cardiovascular and respiratory function, no RCTs have been reported that involve older adults. A number of Taiwanbased observational studies have shown improvements in cardiorespiratory function resulting from Tai Chi. For example, among long-term older adults practicing Tai Chi, significantly better cardiorespiratory function has been reported (Lai, Lan, Wong, & Teng, 1995; Lan, Lai, Chen, & Wong, 1998), and improvements were also observed among coronary artery bypass surgery patients deemed to be at low risk during their participation in a Tai Chi exercise program (Lan, Chen, Lai, & Wong, 1999). Hypertension Tai Chi is a low-impact activity with self-paced and fluid movements, making it appropriate as a means to reduce blood pressure in people with hypertension. Two intervention trials compared the effects of Tai Chi and aerobic exercise on blood pressure – a surrogate for hypertension. An earlier study by Channer et al (1996) showed that over 11 sessions of exercise, both Tai Chi and aerobic exercise were associated with reductions in systolic blood pressure; Tai Chi was also associated with reductions in diastolic blood pressure in a sample of patients recovering from acute myocardial infraction. In a different study by Young et al. (1999), physically inactive older women with systolic blood pressure 130-159 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure > 95 mmHg were randomized to a 12-week moderate-intensity aerobic exercise program or a Tai Chi program of light activity. At the end of the intervention, the Tai Chi group decreased 7. 0 mmHg of systolic and 2. 4 mmHg of diastolic blood pressure. No significant differences were observed between the two exercise activities. The authored concluded that programs of moderate intensity aerobic exercise and light exercise may have similar effects on blood pressure in previously sedentary older individuals. Quality of Sleep Self-reported sleep complaints are common among older adults (Neubauer, 1999) and it is estimated that up to 50% of elderly persons complain about their sleep (Alessi, 2000). Li et al. (2003) conducted a six-month intervention trial to examine the impact of a simpler Tai Chi program on improving quality of sleep and reducing daytime sleepiness among older adults reporting moderate sleep complaints. Participants were randomly assigned to a Tai Chi group or an exercise control group. At the end of the study, Tai Chi participants reported significant improvements in several sleep-quality related measures in comparison to the control participants; with reduced sleep latency (by about 18 minutes per night) and daytime sleepiness, and improved sleep duration (by about 48 minutes per night). The study provided preliminary evidence linking the benefits of Tai Chi exercise to improved quality of sleep and reduced daytime sleepiness in older adults. Psychosocial Wellbeing and Confidence Li and his colleagues (2001a,b,c,d, 2002a, 2002b) provided a series of reports examining the extent to which Tai Chi enhanced older adults’ multidimensional psychological well-being and health-related quality of life indicators. In a 6-month randomized controlled trial, healthy older adults were randomly assigned to either a control condition or Tai Chi. Results indicated that Tai Chi participants reported higher levels of health perceptions, life satisfaction, positive affect, and well-being, and lower levels of depression, negative affect, and psychological distress (Li et al. 2001a). Participants also showed higher levels of both domain-specific physical self-esteem (Li et al. , 2002b) and exercise self-efficacy relevant to movement confidence (Li et al. , 2001c). Change in the level of movement self-efficacy was found to be significantly related to change in physical functioning (Li et al. , 2001b). Similar profiles have been reported by other researchers (Kutner, Barnhart, Wolf, McNeely, & Xu 1997) in that Tai Chi practice resulted in improved well-being, increased alertness, relaxation, better mental outlook, achievement, and greater confidence. Practical Implications The previous summary and review makes it clear that Tai Chi provides multiple health and therapeutic benefits for older adults. Thus, some discussion of practical implications appears to be in order. Fall Prevention Falls can result in devastating consequences for older adults. Accumulating evidence to date suggest that Tai Chi may be an effective means of improving deficits in balance and functional limitations, and therefore, may serve as a therapeutic exercise for balance and strength, and consequently, reduce the risk of falling and the rate of falls in older adults. Tai Chi may also be considered as an exercise modality that generates confidence building to counteract fear of falling, a common psychological symptom of falls among community adults. However, Tai Chi does not provide a quick fix for the fall problem. Most research in this area has focused on short-term results. Findings from current RCTs show that, however, a minimum of three months training is required before clinically meaningful reductions in risks of falling can be achieved, suggesting the need for long-term, sustained, and frequent practice, perhaps on a day-to-day basis, to obtain the full benefit. Tai Chi as an Alternative, Therapeutic Exercise Tai Chi has been recommended for treating many chronic conditions. For example, as a lowimpact, low-intensity alternative exercise therapy, Tai Chi has also been proposed as a potential option for the management of osteoarthritis (Lumsden, Baccala & Aartire, 1998). As a fall prevention activity, Tai Chi has emerged as an appropriate stand-alone balance training program for older adults to improve balance and prevent falls (JAGS, 2001). But even though Tai Chi appears to have numerous benefits to participants, it is still too early for physicians to begin prescribing Tai Chi as a remedy for chronic health problems because many of the studies have design limitations (Wang et al. , 2004), making it difficult to generalize results to broader patient populations. In this regard, patients with chronic health problems need to take precautions before beginning a Tai Chi program, because for some people Tai Chi could worsen medical conditions or problems/ symptoms. In some cases, appropriate odifications may be needed to better accommodate patients’ special needs or physical limitations. Program Costs, Logistics, and Protocols One of the most desirable aspects of Tai Chi is its absence of a need for high technology in promoting health. Tai Chi is easily distinguished from highly technical computerized balance training protocols, and may be just as successful in achieving fall reduction or balance improvement objectiv es; certainly, Tai Chi is more practical. Tai Chi is a low-cost exercise regimen because special equipment or facilities are not needed (Lan et al. 2002; Li et al. , 2003). Li et al (2001b) reported that, in a 6-month RCT, the total direct cost was approximately $9000 (an average of $3. 50 per person per session). Others (Wilson & Datta, 2001) have reported that a twice weekly Tai Chi program was cost-saving whether direct benefits alone (hip fracture costs averted) or direct plus indirect benefits were considered, with a total net cost savings of $1274. 43 per person per year. When considering direct cots only, the net cost savings were $8. 04 per participant per year. Lower costs ensure that more community-dwelling older adults have 5 sufficient access to programs, and abundant opportunities to participate, which is likely to have profound public health implications. While costs of learning Tai Chi are potentially low, one should not underestimate the fact that Tai Chi is a complex system of movements that, when performed, requires body awareness, motor coordination, and agility; features that could make Tai Chi less immediately deliverable to community adults (Li et al. 2003). Therefore, even though the benefits of regular Tai Chi exercise are quite clear, the challenge of maximizing the opportunity for older persons remains because certain movements may be beyond the capabilities of some elderly individuals or others with disabilities. Thus, there is a need to modify existing Tai Chi protocols to develop forms that are simple, easy to perform, and enjoyable (Chen, 2002; Li et al. , 2003; Wolf et al. , 1997), and that do not require years of sust ained practice to master. Tai Chi Styles There are several styles of Tai Chi, some of which are historic/traditional and some of which are of more recent origin. The earliest known form can be traced to the Chen style and evolved and progressed into multiple styles or schools. Currently, there are five main schools of Tai Chi (People’s Sports, 1996), each named after the style’s founding family: (a) Chen, (b) Yang, (c) Sun, (d) Wu (Jian Qian), and (e) Wu (He Qin). Each style has a characteristic protocol that differs from other styles in the postures or forms included, the order in which they appear, the pace at which movements are executed, and the level of difficulty. For example, one significant difference between Chen and Yang styles is that Yang style movements are relaxed and evenly paced. By comparison, the Chen style is characterized by alternating slow movements with quick and vigorous movements, including restrained and controlled actions/motions, reflecting its martial origin. Yang Style Tai Chi, which evolved from the Chen school, is probably the most popular Tai Chi style being practiced today (e. g. , Swaim, 1999; Yu & Johnson, 1999). Yang style movements are performed in a relaxed and flowing manner, with the trunk erect as the axis of all movements, making it immediately suitable for elderly, frail, or disabled populations. To date, the Yang style, with its variations, has been used as an therapeutic exercise modality in most medical and behavioral research. Although there are multiple versions of the Yang style (both short and long, covering 24-, 48-, 88-, and 108-Forms) (China National Sports Commission, 1983), the 24-Form, based on the most popular sequences of the Yang Chengfu school (China Sports, 1980; People Sports, 1996), is the most readily adaptable to the lifestyles and living situations of older adult populations. It is also the most accommodating, requiring minimal demands of personal strength, speed, endurance, flexibility, and motor skills for participation. Is Tai Chi Ready for Dissemination? In a 2001 joint communique on the prevention of falls among the elderly, the American Geriatrics Society, the British Geriatrics Society, and the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons suggested that Tai Chi â€Å"†¦is a promising type of exercise, although it requires further evaluation before it can be recommended as the preferred balance training† (JAGS, 2001). Since the publication of this joint communique, one large successful RCTs has been published (Li et al. , 2005) providing supporting evidence documented by Wolf et al. ’s earlier work (1996). As a result of these studies, we should be asking questions about how we can most effectively translate and disseminate the Tai Chi program. With this accumulated evidence, the time is near 6 for Tai Chi to be recommended as a preferred exercise for balance training and be routinely prescribed for older patients at risk for falling following appropriate screening. Future Research Directions Despite the increasing interest in studying the effectiveness of Tai Chi training and the resulting evidence of health benefits, there remain areas that require further research. We highlight a few of these. A Need to Understand the Mechanisms of the Benefits Shown Although findings from Tai Chi intervention studies are important from a public health perspective, they provide little information relative to the underlying mechanisms that may produce such effects. In this regard, little attention has been given considering intervention/treatment mediators or moderators that help identify causal pathways between treatment and outcome, and possible mechanisms through which a treatment might achieve its effects. For example, although Tai Chi has repeatedly been shown to improve balance, possible mechanisms by which Tai Chi improves this outcome, and prevent subsequent falls, remains to be determined. Future studies should target specifically older adults with balance impairments, and consider integrated laboratory and/or clinical measures that may help identify specific mechanisms whereby Tai Chi can remedy balance disorders. A Need to Better Understand Effects to Patients with Chronic Conditions A review by Wang et al. (2004) concluded that there is insufficient information to recommend Tai Chi to patients with chronic conditions. For example, the impact of Tai Chi on several important geriatric syndromes such as frailty, dementia, and sarcopenia are worthy of study or further research. Large clinical trials, involving populations with specific medical conditions are needed before health professionals can recommend Tai Chi exercise as an alternative to the more conventional exercise forms that have been shown to produce health benefits. The potential application of Tai Chi to important geriatric issues yet to be studied include: obesity, osteoporosis, diabetes, neurological disorders (e. g. , Parkinson’s disease; peripheral neuropathy). A Need to Study Long-Term Effects Tai Chi intervention studies are typically conducted with a short-duration (e. g. , 3 months, 6 months). Long-term effects of Tai Chi training (e. g. , 12 months up to 2 or 3 years) are largely undetermined. Therefore, questions such as how long the established effects on clinical endpoints will sustain over a longer period of time remains to be determined. Certain outcomes may take a longer time to show an effect. Reductions in falls are a good example. Other outcomes such as BMD, may require up to one year to demonstrate clinically meaningful change because Tai Chi is a low-impact activity. Also, research from the general exercise literature indicates that people who participate in an exercise program often fall back into their older inactive lifestyle after a program ends (van der Bij, Laurant, & Wensing, 2002). Although anecdotal evidence suggest that participants remained active upon program termination (Li et al. , 2001b; Wolf et al. , 1996), critical issues such as getting people to initiate and maintain the Tai Chi activity over a long-term need to be addressed. A Need to Evaluate Programs That Can Be Disseminated in Broader Community Settings Ultimately, for the results of the research-based evidence to have greater public health impact they must be diffused and made accessible to the community. However, it remains unclear whether the general community can readily implement or adopt these Tai Chi training protocols despite evidence of their tested efficacy. To date, there is no widespread, nationally available Tai Chi-based falls prevention program that is based on the effectiveness of scientifically controlled studies. In this regard, program evaluation research is needed to translate effective interventions into a program that is implementable in community settings. The Oregon Research Institute is currently conducting a project to move effective interventions into community practice. The project has identified randomized controlled studies of scientifically-based effective Tai Chi fall interventions and focuses on issues related to â€Å"reach† (i. e. , proportion of older adults who are willing to participate in a given Tai Chi program initiative), â€Å"uptake† (adoption; i. e. , the proportion of settings and service agencies who are willing to initiate a program), and â€Å"implementation† (i. e. the intervention agents' fidelity to the various elements of a Tai Chi training protocol, including consistency of delivery as intended and the time and cost of the intervention). The intended results of this translation and dissemination project will provide an effective, evidence-based falls prevention package that can be implemented in community settings to improve functional ability and reduce fall prevalence among communit y-dwelling older adults. Summary The extant research evidence provides strong support for what was originally considered â€Å"anecdotal evidence† about the health benefits of Tai Chi for older adults. Overall, Tai Chi has been shown to have physiologic and psychosocial benefits and appears to be safe and effective in promoting balance control and muscular strength, and cardiovascular fitness for older adults. More research is needed, with rigorous scientific methodologies, to fully understand the mechanisms whereby Tai Chi produces these health benefits. From a public health perspective, immediate efforts are needed to translate programs that can be disseminated in local settings that target community healthy older adults. Fuzhong Li, Ph. D. , is a Senior Research Scientist at the Oregon Research Institute, Eugene, OR. References Alessi, C. A. (2000). Sleep disorders. In Beers MH, Berkow R, eds. The Merck Manual of Geriatrics. 3rd edition. NJ: Merck & Co, 459-463. American Geriatrics Society, British Geriatrics Society, and American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Panel on Falls Prevention (2001). Guideline for the prevention of falls in older persons. Journal of American Geriatri cs Society, 49, 664-672. Chan, K. , Qin, L. , Lau. M et al. (2004). A randomized, prospective study of the effects of Tai Chi Chun exercise on bone mineral density. Archrivals of Physical Medicine Rehabilitation 85, 717-722. Channer, K. , S. , Barrow, D. , Barrow, R. , Osborne, M. , & Ives, G. (1996). Changes in haemodynamic parameters following tai chi chuan and aerobic exercise in patients recovering from acute myocardial infarction. Postgard Medicine, 72, 349-351. Chen, S. (2002). A modified Tai Chi program for individuals with physical disabilities. Palaestra, 18(2), 43–47. China National Sports Commission. (1983). Simplified Taijiquan. Beijing, China: People’s Sports. China Sports (1980). Simplified â€Å"Taijuquan. † Beijing: Foreign Language Printing House. Christou, E. A. , Yang, Y. , & Rosengren, K. S. (2003). Taiji training improves knee extensor strength and force control in older adults. Journal of Gerontology: Medicine Sciences, 58, 763-766. Fasko, D. , & Grueninger, R. W. (2001). T’ai Chi Ch’uan and physical and psychological health: A review. Clinical Kinesiology, 55, 4-12. Hartman, C. A. , Manos, T. M. , Winter, C. et al. effects of Tai Chi training on function and quality of life indicators in older adults with osteoarthritis Journal of American Geriatrics Society, 48, 1553-1559. Kutner, N. G. , Barnhart, H. , Wolf, S. L. , McNeely, E. , & Xu, T. (1997). Self-report benefits of Tai Chi practice by older adults. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Science, 52, 242–246. Lai, J. , S. , Lan, C. , Wong, M. K. , & Teng, S. H. (1995). Two-year trends in cardiorespiratory function among older tai chi chuan practitioners and sedentary subjects. Journal of American Geriatrics Society, 43, 1222-1227. Lan, C. , Lai, J. S. , & Chen, S. Y. (2002). Tai Chi Chuan: An ancient wisdom on exercise and health promotion. Sports Medicine, 32, 217-224. 9 Lan, C, Lai, J. S. , Chen, S. , Y. , Wong, M. K. (1998). 12-month Tai Chi training in the elderly: its effect on health fitness. Medicine Science & Sports Exercise, 30, 345-351. Lan, C. , Chen, S. Y. , Lai, J. S. , & Wong, M. K. (1999). The effect of Tai Chi on cardiorespiratory function in patients with coronary artery bypass surgery. Medicine Science & Sports Exercise, 31, 634-638. Li, J. X. , Hong, Y. , & Chan, K. M. (2001). Tai Chi: Physiological characteristics and beneficial effects on health. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 35, 148–156. Li, F. , Duncan, T. E. , Duncan, S. C. , McAuley, E. , Chaumeton, N. R. , & Harmer, P. (2001a). Enhancing the psychological well-being of elderly individuals through Tai Chi exercise: A latent growth curve analysis. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 8, 53-83. Li, F. , Fisher, K. J. , Harmer, P. , Irbe, D. , Tearse, R. G. , & Weimer, C. (2004). Tai Chi and selfrated quality of sleep and daytime sleepiness in older adults: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of American Geriatrics Society, 52, 892-900. Li, F. , Fisher, K. J. , Harmer, P. , & McAuley, M. (2002a). Delineating the impact of Tai Chi training of physical function among the elderly. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 23, 92–97. Li, F. , Harmer, P. , Duncan, T. E. , Duncan, S. C. , & Chaumeton, N. R. (2002b). Tai Chi as a means to enhance self-esteem: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 21, 70–89. Li, F. , Harmer, P. , Fisher, K. J. , & McAuley, E. (2004). Tai Chi: improving functional balance and predicting subsequent falls in older adults. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 36, 2046-52. Li, F. , Harmer, P. , Fisher, K J. , McAuley, E. , Chaumeton, N. Eckstrom, E. , & Wilson, N. L. (2005). Tai Chi and fall reductions in older adults: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Gerontology: Medical Sciences, 60A, 66-74. Li, F. , Harmer, P. , McAuley, E. , Duncan, T. E. , Duncan, S. C. Chaumeton, N. , & Fisher, K. J. (2001b). An evaluation of the effects of Tai Chi exercise on physical function among older persons: A randomized controlled trial. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 23, 139–146. Li, F. , McAuley, E. , Harmer, P. , Duncan, T. , & Chaumeton, N. R. (2001c). Tai Chi enhances self-efficacy and exercise behavior in older adults. Journal of A ging and Physical Activity, 9, 161–171. Li, F. , McAuley, E. , Harmer, P. , Duncan, T. E. , Duncan, S. C. , & Chaumeton, N. R. (2001d). Tai Chi, self-efficacy, and perceived physical function. Prevention Science, 2, 229-239. 10 Lumsden, D. B. , Baccala, A. & Aartire, J. (1998). Tai Chi for osteoarthritis: an introduction for primary care physicians. Geriatrics, 53, 87-88. National Action Plan (2005). Falls Free: Promoting a national falls prevention action plan: Nation Action Plan. Neubauer, D. N. (1999). Sleep problems in the elderly. Am Family Physician, 59, 25512558. Murphy, S. L. (2000). Deaths: Final data for 1998. National Vital Statistics Reports, Vol. 48, No. 11. Hyattsville (MD): National Center for Health Statistics. People Sports. (1996). Tai Chi Chuan: Collected works. Beijing, China: People’s Sports Publications (Chinese). Preventive Services Task Force (1996). Guide to clinical preventive services: report of the U. S. Preventive Services Task Force, 2nd ed (pp. 659-685). Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins. Song, R. , Lee, E. O. , Lam, P et al. Effects of tai chi exercise on pain, balance, muscle strength, and perceived difficulties in physical functioning in older women with osteoarthritis: a randomized clinical trial. Journal of Rheumatology, 30, 2039-1049. Stevens, J. A. (2005). Falls among older adults – Risk factors and prevention strategies. Falls free: Promoting a national falls prevention action plan. Swaim, L. (1999). Fu Zhongwen: Mastering Yang style Taijiquan. Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books. van der Bij, A. K. Laurant, M. G. H. & Wensing, M. (2002). Effectiveness of physical activity intervention for older adults. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 33, 120-133. Verhagen, A. P. , Immink, M. , va der Meulen et al. (2004). The efficacy of Tai Chi Chuan in older adults: a systematic review. Family Practice, 21, 107-113. Wayne, P. M. , Krebs, D. E. , Wolf, S. L. , Gill-body, JK. M. , Scarborough, D. M. , McGibbon, C. A. , Kaptchuk, T. J. , & Parker, S. W. (2004). Can Tai Chi improve vestibulopathic postural control? Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 85, 142-152. Wang, C. , Collet, J. P, & Lau, J. (2004). The effect of Tai Chi on health outcomes in patients with chronic conditions. Archives of Internal Medicine, 164, 493-501. Wilson, C. J. , & Datta, S. K. (2001). 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Monday, January 6, 2020

Primary Sources and Social Change of the Industrial...

Primary Sources and Social Change of the Industrial Revolution The impact of the Industrial Revolution on the standard of living of working class people is, and has been frequently debated. There is a mass of primary and secondary sources of evidence from the time of the Industrial Revolution available to support differing views of the debate, and there are also many novels available that were written at the time which criticise industrial society, but the difficulty of assessing the total impact of industrialisation upon a population, is how to measure the changes in standard of living. We can look at changes in wages, the changing cost of food, rent and clothing, the impact of the factory†¦show more content†¦A large family could only stave off want by child labour or poor relief. (Peter Mathias (1969,p200) The First Industrial Nation). It appears therefore that the family was dependant on the wages of the women and children for their survival. A new work culture emerged, The Tyranny of the Clock: under the domestic system, workers could set their own pace and hours of work and but in the factory system workers were ruled by the dictates of the machinery and the factory owners. We can look at a primary source which shows the working hours and conditions for a child in a factory in the late 1700s. Charles Aberdeen first started work in a cotton factory when he was twelve years old, he was sent to one in Hollywell by the Westminster Workhouse. In 1832 he was sacked from a cotton Factory in Salford at age fifty three for signing a petition in favour of factory reform. He was interviewed by Michael Sadler and his House of Commons Committee on 7th July 1832 when he told about life as a scavenger in the mill, and how he had to work under the machine whilst it was running. In regard to the increase in machine technology Aberdeen states, I have done twice the quantity of work that I used to do, for less wages. Machines have been speeded. The exertion of the body is required to follow up the speed of the machine. When asked about the effectShow MoreRelatedImportant Factors Leading to Industrial Revolution1606 Words   |  7 PagesNowadays, it is almost taken for granted that the industrial revolutions are the result of changing technology and the proper application of that in the industrial production. However, from my point of view, these two factors did play a vital role in stimulating industrial revolutions, but they were not the only catalyzer propelling monumental development in industry. 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